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set 1 leu, 10 lei and 100 lei 2016 - governors of the National Bank of Romania - Ion I. Câmpineanu, Mihail Manoilescu, Ion I. Lapedatu
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37 mm diameter, 23.5 g, coppered tombac, reeded edge
Obverse: ROMANIA, face value 1 LEU, coat of arms of Romania, year 2016, Governor's Office inside NBR palace (vintage image)
Reverse: effigies of three NBR governors, inscription I. CAMPINEANU - M. MANOILESCU - I. LAPEDATU GUVERNATORI AI BANCII NATIONALE A ROMANIEI meaning "GOVERNORS OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA"

Issuing date: 15th of April 2016

Mintage: 150 coins (only in sets)

37 mm diameter, 31.103 g, 99.9% silver, reeded edge
Obverse: ROMANIA, face value 10 LEI, coat of arms of Romania, year 2016, Governor's Office inside NBR palace (vintage image)
Reverse: effigies of three NBR governors, inscription I. CAMPINEANU - M. MANOILESCU - I. LAPEDATU GUVERNATORI AI BANCII NATIONALE A ROMANIEI meaning "GOVERNORS OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA"

Issuing date: 15th of April 2016

Mintage: 150 coins (only in sets)

21 mm diameter, 6.452 g, 90% gold, reeded edge
Obverse: ROMANIA, face value 100 LEI, coat of arms of Romania, year 2016, Governor's Office inside NBR palace (vintage image)
Reverse: effigies of three NBR governors, inscription I. CAMPINEANU - M. MANOILESCU - I. LAPEDATU GUVERNATORI AI BANCII NATIONALE A ROMANIEI meaning "GOVERNORS OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA"

Issuing date: 15th of April 2016

Mintage: 150 coins (only in sets)


About Mihail Manoilescu

Mihail Manoilescu was born in 1891 at Tecuci. He attented the National High School in Iași. In 1915 he graduated as valedictorian the National School of Bridges and Roads (Școala Națională de Poduri și Șosele) from Bucharest. Right after he was hired as engineer at the Minister of Public Works, then he was conscripted into the army. In 1916 he was transferred to the Direction of Ammunition [1].

After the war he taught as profesor of political economy at the Bucharest Polytechnics School and as well he took the position of governor of Romanian National Bank. He was a right wing politician, deputy in the Parliament and as well Minister of External Affairs.

As Minister of External Affairs he first hand lived the tragedy of the Vienna Dictate, imposed to Romania by Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. After the moments he was presented, at the Belvedere Palace, the constraints of territorial seizure in North-Eastern Transylvania in the favor of Hungary, Mihail Manoilescu lost consciousness (as the Italian Minister of External Affairs Galeazzo Ciano noted).

He died as political prisoner at the Sighet prison in 1950, in the times of the communist regime [5].

Mihail Manoilescu and Krupp - Iași Howitzer

By the time around year 1900 the technical progress had rendered the almost new fortifications of the "Bucharest Fort", as well as the fortifications of the defensive line Focșani-Nămoloasa-Galați, to greatly lower their military value and tactical importance. Given this assessment, it was decided in August 1914 to have the hereinbefore mentioned fortifications disarmed and a "Plan to Complete, Transform and Reform the Armament, Ammunition and War Material" (Plan de completare, transformare și reformare a armamentului, munițiilor și materialului de război) was elaborated [2].

The transformation of the fix artillery pieces in the fort into field, mobile artillery pieces was started right away at the Wolff Works in Bucharest and have later continued, after the refuge at Iași, at the Romanian Railway (C.F.R.) Works at Nicolina (the buildings of which are still standing). In Moldavia and in Iași particularly the Army Arsenal, Army Pyrotechnics, Gun Powder Works of Dudești as well as many other factories from Bucharest and the south of the country were retreated [2].

Mihail Manoilescu has designed (that is has dimensioned and analytically checked) the howitzer of 210 mm gauge, Krupp-Iași, 1888 (1891) / 1918 model. The bores of the howitzers originated in the Krupp howitzers extracted from the fortifications of the Bucharest Fort, whence the name of the artillery pieces modified at Iași. The cannon support, trunnion and rim base, as well as the recoil break were designed by Mihail Manoilescu at Iași during the period of 1917-1918, by multiple robustness and dynamics computations [2]. Final assembly as well as the manufacturing of the the cannon support and recoil break was performed at the Romanian Railway Works at Nicolina in Iași, where the Wolff Works were retreated in refuge [1]. Due to shortcomings in the country, the trunnion and rim base was manufactured at the Greter, Krivanek & Co Plant in Kiev [2].

Romanian Railway Works (Atelierele C.F.R.) of Nicolina

Romanian Railway Works of Nicolina, built in the proximity of the Nicolina River, were founded in 1892 at Iași inder the name of Frumoasa Works, as they were placed not far from the Frumoasa (The Beautiful) Monastery, as well being close to the railway Iași-Ungheni. The scope of these works was to repair locomotives and railroad cars. Before the war here worked around 350 employees [2].

The resulting weapon was experimented on the Copou Hill in Iași, March 1918.

Hereinafter follow a few characteristics of the weapon:

- weight: 8450 kg;

- projectile: Romanian, of 140 kg, or French, of 110.5 kg;

- gunpowder: 3.4 kg for Romanian projectile, 3.9 kg for French projectile;

- speed; 10.4 m/sec for Romanian projectile, 10.82 m/s for French projectile [2].

Mihail Manoilescu published in the Bucharest review ”Buletinul Societății Politecnice” [Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute] two scientific papers about this howitzer, inside which he largely presented the technical solutions he adopted as well as the design computations [2]:

- Manoilescu M, Obuzierul de 210 mm, model ”Iași” (cu țeava din cupole). Buletinul Societății Politecnice, an XXXIII, partea tehnică, 1919, p. 210-214;

- Manoilescu M, Obuzierul de 210 mm model ”Iași” (urmare de la p. 214, an XXXIII). Buletinul Societății Politecnice, an XXXIV, partea tehnică, 1920, p. 103.

As the author mentioned in the description of the howitzer, the weapon crafted at Iași had a reduced weight, was easy to mount, could be transported on wheels as the sole artillery piece of such gauge at the time: "... the 210 mm gauge Iași howitzer was the only artillery piece of so large a gauge - with rigid cannon support - transportable on wheels. We do not know even on foreign artilleries such a piece. In good sooth, the cannons and howitzers of gauge higher than 155 mm if rigid, that is if they have no recoil on bore, cannot be transported on wheels" [2].

Nowadays the Krupp - Iași howitzer can be found in the courtyard of the National Military Museum in Bucharest [2], [3]. It seems that in the between war period (as well as until around 1960) the howitzer was among the artillery pieces guarding the Unknown Hero Monument in the Carol Park in Bucharest [4].

The centenary of the Krupp - Iași howitzer was celebrated in 2018 by the Technical University "Gheorghe Asachi" and the Iași City Hall by the issue of a commemorative medal. The concept of the medal reverse belongs to Mr Alexandru Pălii.

The hereinafter virtual reconstructions:

- Krupp - Iași howitzer in firing stance, inside a battery, with fog;

- Krupp - Iași howitzer in firing stance, inside a battery, with clear sky;

- Nicolina Works at the time of howitzer production, realistic;

- Nicolina Works at the time of howitzer production, with manufactured cannon supports placed in front of the main building, realistic;

- Nicolina Works at the time of howitzer production, artistic;

are present on Romanian coins / Monede românești site by the courtesy of Mr Alexandru Pălii.

References

1. Mihaiță M., Mihail Manoilescu, personalitate marcantă din AGIR. Univers Ingineresc nr. 23, December 2004 (334), accessed March 2019.

2. Seghedin N. E., Obuzierul Krupp-Iași. Editura Performantica, Iași, 2018.

3. Stroea A., Ghinoiu M., Băjenaru Gh., Barbu F., Dănilă Olga, Enciclopedia artileriei române. Editura Centrului Tehnic-Editorial al Armatei, București, 2014, available on-line on Revista Forțelor Terestre website, accessed March 2019.

4. ***, Portal:Armata română/Știați că, accessed March 2019.

5. ***, Mihail Manoilescu, Wikipedia, accessed March 2019.


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