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5 hryvnia 2015 - Cernăuți Region - 75 years
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28 mm diameter, 9.4 g, bimetallic, reeded sectors on edge
Obverse: the small coat of arms of Ukraine, inscription "• NAȚIONALINII BANK UKRAINI P'EATI GRIVENI" (with Cyrillic letters) meaning "NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE FIVE HRYVNIA", at right the logotype of NBU and year 2015. At the top of the central disk are represented former metropolitan seat with Three Hierarchs church in Cernăuți and Hotin Fortress. On the bottom of the central disk is a shepherd with sheep, playing bucium or tulnic (instrument resembling the better known alphorn), musical staff, a Bucovinean adornment and a flower.
Reverse: on the ring inscription "CERNIVEȚIKA OBLASTI ZASNOVANA U 1940 ROȚI" (with Cyrillic letters) meaning "CERNĂUȚI REGION ESTABLISHED IN YEAR 1940", in the middle the Ukrainian coat of arms of the Cernăuți Region

Issuing date: 5th of August 2015

Mintage: 30.000 coins


This coin was issued by the National Bank of Ukraine for the celebration of 75 years from the establishment of the Cernăuți (German name: Czernowitz; Ukrainian name: Chernivtsi) Region (on 7th of August 1940, after the Soviet Union annexed the Romanian territories of Basarabia, Bucovina and the Herța area). The coin belongs to the "Regions of Ukraine" series.

Foundation of Moldavia

The principality of Moldavia was founded in the 14th century, being consolidated around an initial nucleus positioned in its north western corner which later on was also called Bucovina.

Historical facts and legend concur in the essence: Romanian voivods from Maramureș - that is the northern part of Transylvania, neighbouring the early Moldavia -, together with their households, crossed the mountains and set the grounds of the future Moldavian state inside the Romanian ethogenetic space east of the Carpathians, at the time under Tatarian domination.

"Voivod Dragoș and the Wisent" statue in Cîmpulung Moldovenesc (Ion Jalea - 1978)


Voivod Dragoș, together with his descendants Sas and Balc, have ruled east of the Carpathians between 1353 and 1359 under suzerainty of the Hungarian crown.

Wooden church at Putna (demountable, 14th century) – considered to be the first church of Dragoș, brought from Volovăț to Putna by Stephen the Great and the Holy


Voivod Bogdan from Maramureș, notorious rebel of the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians with his household and ousted the descendants of Dragoș, thus forging Moldavia's independence, strengthening its identity, ruling as prince over to his passing on (1359 – 1365).

Historian Constantin Giurescu considered that the consolidation of the Moldavian state was finalized in the time of prince Petru Mușat (1375 – 1391) by gradually forcing out the Tatar occupants and by extension of the territory over to River Nistru and the Black Sea.

Establishment of the Duchy of Bucovina

The establishment of the Dutchy of Bucovina followed the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774, a war which weakened the position of the Otoman Empire in the region of the Romanian Principalities.

As a consequence of this war, following the Turkish-Austrian convention of May 7th 1775 Austria despoiled Moldavia of the historical counties of Cernăuți and Suceava (to the north), known afterwards as Bucovina (from German Buchenland – Land of the Beeches). In fact, the Austrians had already occupied Bucovina since October 1774, having pretended to need a crossing region ("sanitary cordon") from Transylvania toward Galicia through Tihuța Pass (after the First Partition of Poland in 1772 Austria had occupied a vast territory in the north of the Carpathian Mountains, with the capital in Lemberg (Lvov), and had common border with Moldavia on River Ceremuș). [Romanian surname Cordoneanu-Corduneanu was given to the inhabitants of the sanitary cordon zone – "Cordon".]

During the Austrian period, Bucovina has received an important number of immigrants: Jews, Germans, Ruthenians (addressed today as Ukrainians) and Poles. Thus, its natural status was shattered while the ethnic proportion of the native element was diminished.

According to Adrian Constantinescu, "The majority [of German colonists] were originating in Rhineland-Palatinate ("Rheinland- Pfalz"), Baden-Baden ("Baden-Baden"), Hesse ("Hessen"), Bohemia and Moravia ("Böhmen und Mähren "), Banat ("Banat")" [3].

Union of Bucovina

The General Congress of Bucovina voted the Union with the Kingdom of Romania on November 28th 1918 with majority of votes. For the Union voted the Romanians, Germans, Jews and Poles. The Ukrainians only voted against.

Metropolitan Palace in Cernăuți (post card)


The Act of Union took place in the synodal hall of the Bucovina Metropolitan Palace in Cernăuți (post card)

Moldavian urus (wisent) trampling under hooves the Austrian-Hungarian "Empire Eagle", scene from the Union's Memorial in Cernăuți, rendered on a medal (2008) commemorating the Union of Bucovina with Romania


Creation of the Cernăuți Region (Oblast)

The coin celebrates the creation of the Cernăuți region.

The foundation of the Cernăuți region inside the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (part of USSR), today in Ukraine, is a result of the Second World War.

The state of belligerency between USSR and Romania, established at the initiative of the former, has begun de facto on June 26th 1940, with the ultimatum note transmitted by Molotov to Gheorghe Davidescu, Romanian plenipotentiary minister at Moscow.

This ultimatum came along a few days after the capitulation of France; it was forwarded to Romania with the approval of German minister of foreign affairs Ribbentrop (granted one day earlier). The ultimatum was a consequence of the clause regarding Basarabia inside the secret protocol of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, agreed on August 23rd 1939.

The Romanian concession occurred only under Soviet military pressure, on the background of the severe shift of power balance in Europe and of the diplomatic isolation of Romania. Thus, over three and a half million Romanian citizens in Basarabia, Northern Bucovina and the region of Herța, majoritarily being Romanian ethnics, have been turned over night into Soviet citizens.

Allies in the exploit of splitting Europe, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany have reconfirmed the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact by the joint participation in the "Liberation" parade which took place at Chișinău (Chișinău and Cernăuți were the two most important cities in the occupied territories) on July 6th 1940. This parade featured the marching, amid Soviet troops, of a German SS battalion [3].

"The pressures and military actions exerted by Moscow constituted an act of aggression, similar to those against Austria and Czechoslovakia, perpetrated by Germany, even if they were enveloped by agreements, accords and concession following an ultimatum" [7]. In regard of the history of Soviet aggression, it is worth mentioning that "[...] between 1918 and 1941, USSR has permanently transgressed international laws, provoking 197 frontier incidents, with opening of gunfire, killing 31 Romanian border guards and wounding 22" [7].

Composition of the Cernăuți Region (Oblast)

The region of Cernăuți is nowadays comprised out the following historical regions:

- north of Bucovina, (more precisely the counties of Cernăuți and Storojineț and the northern part of the county of Rădăuți), never outside the Moldavian territory since the foundation of Moldavia over to 1775, never inside the Russian Empire or Soviet Union over to 1940

- north of Basarabia, (more precisely the northern part of the county of Hotin), never inside the Russian Empire over to 1812, never inside the Soviet Union (Ukraine) over to 1940

- Herța area, (more precisely the old Romanian borough of Herța and other 26 villages in the northern part of the Dorohoi county), never outside Moldavia or Romania since the foundation of Moldavia over to 1940.

Memorial at the entry point in old town of Herța, first attested in 1437 (nowadays Ukraine); to the right (town side) the old Romanian coat of arms of Herța can be seen


Tragedies of the Population (Romanian and not-Romanian)

The tragedies of Bucovinian, Basarabian and Herțian population, of Romanian and not-Romanian ethnicity, started together with the Soviet occupation and the creation of the Cernăuți region.

The coin celebrates the creation of the Cernăuți region inside the Soviet Union, implicitly the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (between the Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union) that made it possible, and consequently the violent effects of this act also.

Refugees

The first to be affected were the refugees. The development of the Soviet ultimatum did neither allow the civil population nor the administration the necessary time for leaving the relinquished territories orderly.

Especially during the 1940 refuge, a large number of Romanian citizens, civilians, retreated to the inner country without being able to take along anything more than hand luggage, de facto losing all their tangible properties left home.

American press photo (July 30th 1940), featuring a scene of the civilian refuge to Romania (a hundred thousand or more) from the bolshevized Romanian territory, in freight cars


The number of refugees surpassed 100.000 persons [4], but the actual number could be consistently greater.

At least until the return of the provinces to the Mother Land in 1941, the refugees subsisted in precarious conditions. Their woes did not fully end even after the Liberation, as they returned to their dwellings only to find them robbed or destroyed by war, only to find their close relatives deported.

Alexandru Budișteanu, witness of the entire occupation period June 1940 – June 1941 and then of the Liberation, recorded in his memoir "Sub patru regimuri pe toate continentele" [Under Four Regimes on All Continents] [1] the hasty flight of the Soviets in June 23rd from the city of Bălți: "Significant is the fact that he [the NKVD officer had taken over the house of an expropriated neighbour] and his family had came from USSR plainly with bare hands, and now they had to load in a lorry furniture, other stuff and luggage".

"Repatriates"

Consequence of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact was also the repatriation rather nilly than willy, of the German ethnics from the provinces seized through aggression by the Soviet Union, and not only. According to Arthur Tuluș [8], "the repatriation of German ethnics from Basarabia, a number of 93.329 persons, occurred in the September 23rd – October 23rd 1940 period, and those from Northern Bucovina, a total of 43.641 persons, between September 26th and October 14th the same year. Out of the total German population, stayed on in the two provinces only a number of 5.504 persons – 2.058 in Basarabia and 3.446 in Northern Bucovina".

The Germans who did not "repatriate" have shared the tragedies of the Romanian people: refuge, war in the East, retreat and, often, detention or deportation. An example for the fate of Romanian citizens of German ethnicity in the territory occupied by USSR is Robert Eisenbraun (1920, Cahul - 2004, Bucharest). Born at Cahul in Basarabia, he was a poet and a conscience of Romanian expression, mainly known for the poem "Daniil Sihastrul", valued by Adrian Păunescu and the Flacăra Cenacle. He has published under pen names Robert Cahuleanu and Andrei Ciurunga, being condemned to prison and imprisoned for his Anti-Bolshevik positions for an important number of years (1950-1954, 1958-1964).

Monument raised at Iași in memory of victims of the communist regime


Deported

Romanian and not-Romanian ethnics from Basarabia, Northern Bucovina and the Herța area, labeled as Anti-Soviet elements, were deported under cynic motivations, in a first wave during 12th and 13th of June 1941 especially in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Among them were mainly employees in the administration of the Romanian state, former policemen and gendarmes, wealthy peasants, merchants, industrialists, party members, prostitutes.

The number of Romanian citizens deported under Soviet rule, according to the work of historian Alex Mihai Stoenescu "Armata, mareșalul și evreii" [The Army, the Marshall and the Jews] [7, p. 405], rose up to 400.000, among which 100.000 were Jew ethnics.

Instead of the deported the Soviet authorities have implanted, even from 1940, a consistent number of persons of various ethnicities, individuals without any prior connection to these Romanian stretches of land.

Anița at 28, with her son Toader, 1932


A heartrending picture for the fate of the deported is the testimony of Romanian woman Anița Nandriș-Cudla "20 de ani în Siberia" [20 years in Siberia] [6]. First printed in 1991, the book is the own life's account written by the peasant from Bucovina (Mahala village near Cernăuți) who managed to survive the harsh, forced labour system together with her three sons. Together with her husband and the three underage children, she was deported from Mahala village to the Soviet Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, at the Polar Circle, with no trial or even communicated accusation. The same night of 12th to 13 June 1941, (that is before the breakout of the Second World War), overall 602 fellow villagers were arrested and deported, without any prior notice. Her mother had the same sentence but was spared from deportation after the fact she was paraplegic was acknowledged by authorities. As later discovered, the reason for deportation and forced labour was the fake and nonsensical heads that, allegedly, her husband had been mayor in the Romanian administration, politician and rich peasant, none of the latter being at least true. Separated from her husband, she brought up the three boys, overcame typhus, scorbutus, malnutrition, extreme cold and harsh toils, to later return to Bucovina after rehabilitation. Her manuscript was written toward the end of her life, in the simple and direct language of a peasant with 3 years of school education, and was secretly brought to Romania before the fall of Romanian communism, in 1982. Her manuscript was first published in 1991. Deportation was shared mainly with Romanians from Bucovina and Basarabia, Finnish and Polish prisoners, as token that Gulag labour camps had also been used for shattering/ extermination of the natives in the newly occupied territories of the Soviet Union.

Beside forced expatriation and property confiscation, deportation meant often death for the victims, due to the inhuman conditions of transportation and afterwards daily life and forced labour. All the Romanian town and villages in Northern Bucovina have suffered deportations.

Monument in the courtyard of the Crasna church (nowadays Ukraine, in the Storojineț former county), dedicated to the memory of the villagers who died in Russia (Siberia), Kazakhstan and Finland (at the White Sea – Baltic Canal, abbreviated Belomor in Russian) and as well of the ones who were lost without a trace


Another consequence of the Soviet invasion, materialized after the liberation in 1941 of Basarabia, Northern Bucovina and Herța, was the deportation to Transnistria, more precisely into the province between River Nistru and River Bug, civilly administrated, temporarily, by Romania, of the majority of the Jews left after the Soviet retreat. The grounds for deportation were, in the difficult war state, of certain Romanian citizens to Transnistria was the voluntary collaborationism with the occupant (a situation which had occured frequently), suspicion of collaborationism and rasist anti-Romanian attitudes. Beside these were also deported Jewish ethnicity individuals implanted by the Soviet occupant who did not retreat to USSR. It has to be reminded that 100.000 Jews, loyal to the Romanian state or in other way incompatible with Bolshevism (intellectuals, industrialists, merchants, proprietors etc.) had already been deported to Asia by the Soviet occupant. The Jewish Romanian citizens from the right of River Prut and Southern Bucovina did not suffer deportations and were not relinquished to Germany for extermination, as it was the case of the Jews of Northern Transylvania, temporarily occupied by Hungary with German support.

The harsh conditions of transportation to Transnistria (province neighbouring Basarabia to the east) and life in Transnistria have indirectly determined the premature death of many deported as well as other miseries, these deported individuals being partly innocent. These Romanian citizens also have to be counted among the victims of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact. According to Radu Ioanid (quoted by [7, p. 429]), at least 75.000 Jews died in Transnistria due to multiple hardships.

Massacre of Civil Population

After the Soviet occupation was installed, the Romanians in Bucovina and Herța repetedly tried, in larger or smaller groups, to cross the new frontier to Romania. The Soviet border guards have killed by shooting the majority of the Romanians surprised during the crossing, generally the survivors being condemned to death and the relatives of the fugitives being deported.

The gravest case was the massacre of Fîntîna Albă (April 1st 1941), when Soviet border guards shot a column of 3000 Romanian civilians intending to cross to Romania, killing most of them. The Bucovinian peasants, men, women and children were peacefully headed for the frontier, holding a white flag in front of the column. The fire was deliberately opened, the dying survivors being burried alive, together with the killed, in mass graves.

Cross paying homage to the memory of the Romanians massacred at Fîntîna Albă, raised at the entrance to the Putna monastery, with support from the Department for Romanians Everywhere [Departamentul pentru Românii de Pretutindeni], on April 1st 2011, 70 years after the massacre


Modest cross in Herța dedicated to the memory of those who were deported or killed since the creation of the Cernăuți region inside Ukraine over to the Liberation by the Romanian Army: "IN MEMORY OF THE REPRESSED MARTYRS FROM YEAR 1940-41" [ÎN AMINTIREA MARTIRILOR REPRESAȚI DIN ANUL 1940-41]


After the Liberation by the Romanian Army of the occupied territories, mass graves have been discovered, likely only just a few from several, where the Soviet authorities had thrown massacred Herțian (from the Old Kingdom), Basarabian and Bucovinian civilians:

- at Lunca – in the Herța Area,

- at Chișinău – on the Viilor street, in the NKVD courtyard – in Basarabia,

- on the terrain called "Spolka", situated 7 km away from Odessa on the railway toward Ovidiopol – Transnistria.

Medal "Recompleted Bucovina Exposition", celebrating the Liberation and displaying the map of the stolen part of Bucovina – struck in 1942 with care of jeweler Nicolae V. Alexandrescu, Cernăuți


Dissolution of Graduate Romanian Education

King Carol I University in Cernăuți fled in refuge with its entire personnel in 1940. After the loss of Northern Bucovina, the professors joined other universities from the Land, on one hand, and on the other the graduate education in Romanian language was discontinued in the region of Cernăuți (Ukraine) over to the present.

The diplomatic undertakings of the Romanian president Emil Constantinescu back in 1997, for the transformation of the actual Cernăuți university from a monocultural one to a multicultural one did not reach fruition.

Removal of the Lipovan Russian Metropolitan

Lipovan Russians (from "lipa", meaning linden), are rebels (raskolniki) who withstood the reforms of the Muscovite patriarch Nikon and were persecuted as such in Russia. They found refuge in Moldavia, in several waves, starting with 1760. Their main settlement and metropolitan see of their religious rite was at Fîntîna Albă in northern Moldavia (nowadays Ukraine). After annexation of Northern Bucovina by USSR, the Soviet troops showed up also in the village of Fîntîna Albă (June 30th 1940). The metropolitan of Lipovan Russians (starovyery), Siluan Kravțov, badly ill, was forced to leave and remove to Brăila on the territory of free Romania. Soon after the Soviet authorities disbanded the monastery, confiscated the worship objects and scattered the monks. The Metropolitan of Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Lipovan) ceased the activity at Fîntîna Albă, being in refuge at Brăila until the present day. However, the head of the church retained the title of Archbishop of Fîntîna Albă and Metropolitan of All Old Rite Orthodox Believers Everywhere.


Romanian Cultural Heirloom in the Cernăuți Region, Maramureș, Basarabia, Transnistria (nowadays Ukraine) – A Few Points of Reference

Bucovina

In Cernăuți has studied the Romanian national poet Mihai Eminescu. Nowadays the house were he was boarded and the building of the highschool where he studied still stand in the present.

In Cernăuți lies the Metropolitan of Bucovina palace (monument of architecture), where the General Congress of Bucovina voted the Union with the Kingdom of Romania on November 28th 1918.

In Cernăuți lies the palace of the disbanded King Carol I University. The building (monument of architecture) was built between years 1920 and 1922 by the Romanian government. The University had as rector for several years the reputable historian Ion Nistor.

In Cernăuți lies the house and grave of Aron Pumnul, professor who inspired the youth of Romanian national poet Mihai Eminescu and also the poem "La mormîntul lui Aron Pumnul" [At the Grave of Aron Pumnul]. In the Cernăuți graveyard lies the cript where the bishops and metropolitans of Bucovina await the second coming next to several scientific and cultural Romanian personalities.

In the Adîncata raion of the nowadays Cernăuți region lie Codrii Cosminului [Cosmin's Woods], where Stephen the Great and the Holy crushed in 1496 the retreating army of Polish king John I Albert. In 2012, on the battleground a simple, wooden commemorative cross was raised in remembrance.

Bas relief on the pedestal of the Stephen the Great and the Holy statue in Iași, placed in front of the Culture Palace, displaying the battle scene from Codrii Cosminului (the art piece is the work of French sculptor Fremiet)


Next to the city of Cernăuți lays the townlet of Sadagura (incorporated nowadays to Cernăuți), where baron Peter Nicolaus von Gartenberg (Sadogorski) struck, in period 1771-1774, the first common coins for the Romanian principalities Walachia and Moldavia, featuring the adjoined coats of arms thereof on the same coin side.

bust of chronicler Ion Neculce from Boian

Close to Cernăuți lies the village of Boian, former property of Moldavian chronicler Ion Neculce. The parish of this village was commited for two years to Iraclie Porumbescu, the father of the famous composer Ciprian Porumbescu. As a marginal place of Bucovina, it is the place referred to by poet Mihai Eminescu in the verse "Din Boian la Vatra Dornii" (From Boian to Vatra Dornii, Doină poem).

Herța Area

In the borough of Herța lies the house of Gheorghe Asachi, founder of the Romanian engineering education (1813), initiator of Mihail Sturza Academy (Academia Mihăileană, 1835), founder of the first school of arts and crafts (1841), as well as the founder of written press in Romanian language - Albina româneasc㠖 Romanian Bee, issued at Iași.

House of Gheorghe Asachi in Herța, nowadays the central library of the Herța raion in Ukraine


bust of Gheorghe Asachi in the park of Herța


bust of Mihai Eminescu in Herța


On his way from Ipotești in the county of Botoșani to Cernăuți where he studied, national poet Mihai Eminescu was crossing the border to Austria after leaving behind the border town of Herța. His presence is remembered by a bust in the heart of the borough.

In Herța lies the house of painter Arthur Verona, the one to whom queen Marie entrusted the painting at the Bran castle chapel.

In this house Romanian painter Arthur Verona (1868-1946) has lived and created; nowadays the seat of raion state administration in Herța


Maramureș

One of the oldest orthodox monasteries in the Romanian space was at Peri, in northern Maramureș, on the right bank of River Tisa (nowadays in Ukraine). As feat of voivod Dragoș descendants, Balc and Drag, the monastery "Saint Archangel Michael" in Peri entered in 1391 under the protection of patriarch Anthony IV of Constantinople, the monastery thus gaining jurisdiction over the Maramureș churches and other shires. Prior Pahomie, kin of voivod Dragoș, has received bishop attributions.

According to Nicolae Iorga, the four old texts comprizing the Apostol and Psalter, known as "Maramureșian texts" or "rhotacised texts", being the first liturgical texts known in Romanian language, have been translated at the Peri monastery (Voroneț Codex, Voroneț Psalter, Hurmuzaki Psalter and Șcheia Psalter) [5].

Basarabia

Incorporated since early beginnings into the principality of Moldavia, the fortress of Hotin was one of the most important fortresses on the defensive structure maintained by Moldavian princes on the right bank of River Nistru. Presently inside the fortress still stands the chapel built by Stephen the Great and the Holy.

Today the fortress and city of Hotin belong to the region of Cernăuți (Ukraine).

Hotin fortress with the chapel built by Stephen the Great and the Holy


In southern Basarabia (that is Basarabia proper) lie the two Moldavian fortresses Chilia and Cetatea Albă.

During the kin strife following the death of the great ruler Alexander the Good (1400 - 1432), descendants of the prince shared the rule of Moldavia, for about 15 years, thusly:

- Highland (Țara de Sus) with its regular capital at Suceava and

- Lowland (Țara de Jos) with the capital at Cetatea Albă.

The fortress of Chilia, named also Chilia Nouă (New Chilia), was founded by Stephen the Great and the Holy on the left bank of Danube (Chilia branch) starting with 1479, today being ruined.

Stephen the Great and the Holy also concerned himself a lot in Cetatea Albă. He built here the main entry gate and the third enceinte wall. Being a head fortress, it was managed by two burgomasters.

Nicknamed "the keys to Moldavia", they were lost after heroic fights in 1484 to the Ottoman Empire, which kept them as forefronts for expanding the sphere of influence over to 1812.

In his attempt to regain Cetatea Albă (and Chilia, the Moldavian fortress on Danube occupied by the Turks the very same year, 1484) with the help of the Poles, Stephen the Great personally sworn allegiance to king Casimir IV Iagiellon. The Polish help was of little importance and Cetatea Albă could not be retaken. The loss of Chilia and Cetatea Albă was a major military and political blow received by Moldavia.

Moldavian princes struck at Cetatea Albă coins with the Moldavian aurochs on one side and with a cross surrounded by the legend Asprokastru on the other side, possibly during the rules of voivods Alexăndrel and Petru Aron, between 1449 and 1457. Here were also countermarked with a cross - the coat of arms of Cetatea Albă - small silver Tatarian coins.

In southern Basarabia, on the edge of Cahul lake, at Roșcani, (in the former Izmail county), the Moldavian voivod Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit [John Voivod the Frightful] waged his last anti-Ottoman battle. Being defeated and captured, he was torn apart by four camels.

In southern Basarabia, on the edge of Ialpug lake, lies the village of Babele, birth place of marshall Alexandru Averescu, one of the two Romanian marshalls who led the Romanian Army during the First World War.

Transnistria

The small town of Movilău, apparently founded by Moldavian prince Ieremia Movilă around year 1600 on the left bank of River Nistru, is the place where the first Romanian poetry book was printed: "Poezii noo" [New Poems] by Ioan Cantacuzino.

At Niemirow stood (and possibly still stand in ruins) the courts of Moldavian prince Duca Vodă, in his second quality of hetman of Ukraine.

Ukrainian postal stamp series "7 Wonders of Ukraine: Castles, Fortresses and Palaces " (2012). 3 out of 7 wonders lie in Moldavia, 1 in Crimea


References

1. Budișteanu A., Sub patru regimuri pe toate continentele. Editura Institutului Național pentru Studiul Totalitarismului, București, 2014.

2. Colesnic I., Chișinăul și chișinăuienii. Editura Ulysse, Chișinău, 2012, (pag. 13, „O paradă de care nu vor să-și amintească biruitorii”).

3. Constantinescu A., Etnicii germani din România. Revista AGERO, ianuarie 2016.

4. Hălălău F., Din activitățile recente ale Asociației Foștilor Refugiați (AFOR 1940-1947). Blogul Asociației Foștilor Refugiați (AFOR 1940-1947), articol publicat pe 8 noiembrie 2015, ianuarie 2015.

5. Iuga N., Începuturile scrisului în limba română și statutul Mănăstirii Peri din Maramureș, sec. al XIV-lea. Gogea's Blog, articol publicat pe 5 octombrie 2011, ianuarie 2015.

6. Nandriș-Cudla Anița, Douăzeci de ani în Siberia. Editura Humanitas, București, 2013.

7. Stoenescu A.M., Armata, mareșalul și evreii. Ediția a doua, revăzută și adăugită, Editura RAO, București, 2010.

8. Tuluș A., Aspecte privind repatrierea etnicilor germani din sudul Basarabiei (Bugeac) la sfîrșitul anului 1940 [Aspects Concerning the Repatriation of the German Ethnics in the South of Basarabia (Bugeac) at the End of Year 1940]. In Romanian, in volume "Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference Dedicated to the 70th Anniversary Odessa's Heroic Defence, 15th-16th of April 2011” (title in Ukrainian), Odessa, 2011.


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