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5 roubles 2014 - Iași-Chișinău Offensive
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25 mm diameter, 6 g, nickel plated steel, reeded edge
Obverse: face value "5 RUBLEI" meaning "5 ROUBLES", inscription "BANK ROSSII" (with Cyrillic letters) meaning "BANK OF RUSSIA", year 2014, at right a vegetal adornmentand monogram MMD (MMD stands for Moskovskii Monetnyi Dvor, meaning the Moscow Mint)
Reverse: "Liberation" monument in Chișinău, inscriptions "VELIKAIA OTECESTVENNAIA VOINA 1941-1945 G.G." and "IASSKO-KISHINEVSKAIA OPERATSIIA" (with Cyrillic letters) meaning "THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (years) 1941-1945" and "IAȘI-CHIȘINĂU OPERATION"

Issuing date: 9th of October 2014

Mintage: 2.000.000 coins


The coin was issued by the National Bank of Russia and belongs to a series called 70th Anniversary of the Victory in the "Great Patriotic War" between 1941-1945, a series comprising 18 coins dedicated to Soviet battles and military operations, namely Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Caucasus, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Dnieper, Dnieper-Carpathians Operation, Battle of Leningrad, Belarusian Operation, Lvov-Sandomierz Operation, Iași-Chișinău Operation, Baltic Operation, Operation for the Liberation of Karelia and the Arctic, Budapest Operation, Wisla-Oder Operation, East-Prussian Operation, Vienna Operation, Berlin Operation, Prague Operation.

Second World War, USSR and Romania, Creation of MSSR (Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic)

The Second World War (in official Soviet wording Velikaya Otechestvennaya voyna [Великая Отечественная Война], or "Great Patriotic War" in English translation), was raised in the Soviet times to the position of founding myth for the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The foundation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (MSSR), today the Republic of Moldova, is a result of this war.

The state of belligerency between USSR and Romania, established at the initiative of the former, has begun de facto on June 26th 1940, with the ultimatum note transmitted by Molotov to Gheorghe Davidescu, Romanian plenipotentiary minister at Moscow.

This ultimatum came along a few days after the capitulation of France; it was forwarded to Romania with the approval of German minister of foreign affairs Ribbentrop (granted one day earlier). The ultimatum was a consequence of the clause regarding Basarabia inside the secret protocol of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, agreed on August 23rd 1939.

The Romanian concession occurred only under Soviet military pressure, on the background of the severe shift of power balance in Europe and of the diplomatic isolation of Romania. Thus, over three and a half million Romanian citizens in Basarabia, Northern Bucovina and the region of Herța, majoritarily being Romanian ethnics, have been turned over night into Soviet citizens.

Allies in the exploit of splitting Europe, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany have reconfirmed the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact by the joint participation in the "Liberation" parade which took place at Chișinău (Chișinău and Cernăuți were the two most important cities in the occupied territories) on July 6th 1940. This parade featured the marching, amid Soviet troops, of a German SS battalion [3].

"The pressures and military actions exerted by Moscow constituted an act of aggression, similar to those against Austria and Czechoslovakia, perpetrated by Germany, even if they were enveloped by agreements, accords and concession following an ultimatum". [4]

In regard of the history of Soviet aggression, it is worth mentioning that "[...] between 1918 and 1941, USSR has permanently transgressed international laws, provoking 197 frontier incidents, with opening of gunfire, killing 31 Romanian border guards and wounding 22" [4].

At Union's level, Soviet propaganda valued the Second World War as a basis for the definition of the "Soviet people" identity, for justifying its alleged world liberation mission and to enforce the continuous purging of the hostile elements (kulaks, Trotskyists, social parasites, clerics, other unspecific enemies of the people).

"Liberation" Monument in Chișinău

The monument dedicated to the "liberation" of Moldavia by the Soviet Army is placed in front of the Moldavian Academy of Sciences and of "Chișinău" hotel, at the entry inside the Constantin Negruzzi Boulevard, at the basis of the Ștefan cel Mare și Sfînt Boulevard.

Liberation Monument and the building of the Moldavian Academy of Sciences

Liberation Monument and the Chișinău Hotel

Liberation Monument, detail with the inscription

The monument was unveiled on August 21st 1969. It comprises to persons: a woman, signifying the Motherland, hands spread in token of liberty, and a man - a Soviet soldier.

Nowadays, on the pedestal of the monument the inscription in Romanian, with Latin letters, is placed: "MONUMENUL ESTE EDIFICAT ÎN CINSTEA ELIBERĂRII MOLDOVEI DE OCUPAȚIA GERMANO-FASCISTĂ" meaning "THE MONUMENT IS ERECTED TO HONOUR THE LIBERATION OF MOLDAVIA FROM THE GERMAN-FASCIST OCCUPATION", and its Russian equivalent. The inscription is of a treacherous substance, explicitly and implicitly transmitting to the reader, better or worse advised, several untruths:

- the Moldavian people would be grateful to the Soviet Army;

- Moldavia would have been under German occupation; in fact, Moldavia was in 1944 de jure and de facto part of the Romanian state, a preexisting status from before the war;

- Moldavia (political space of existence of the principality of Moldavia) would have been liberated by the Soviet Army and as a consequence turned into a free Union Republic; in fact, the Soviet Army did not liberate but in fact occupied an important part of this space; as outcome of this military occupation in the Moldavian space only a portion of this territory was integrated to the Soviet State as Union "Moldavian" State, whereas Northern Bucovina, the region of Herța, Northern Basarabia and Southern Basarabia, as well as an area of the Moldavian inhabited Transnistria were merged with Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, id est remained outside the Soviet Moldavian state.

Signification of the "Liberation" Monument in Chișinău

The monument glorifies the victorious feats of the Soviet Army in the Second World War and consequently glorifies the aftermaths of this victory for the Romanian people, among which it is to be recalled:

- almost eight hundred thousand Romanians dead, wounded or missing in the Second World War;

- the payment by Romania to USSR of war reparations, as well as the robbing of the country through SovRom enterprises, raising altogether to an amount estimated at one billion American dollars;

- Romania's transformation into a satellite state to the Soviet Union;

- artificial abolition of monarchy and its replacement with the republic;

- the disbanding of the democratic multi-party system and its replacement with the state-party;

- artificial bolshevisation of Romania, with the arousal of hatred among various segments of the society;

- bringing up to leading positions in the Romanian state of ethnic minority elements, communized and Romanianophobe, acting as Soviet agents;

- temporary discontinuation of the unitary character of the Romanian state, by the enforced temporary existence of the Magyar Autonomous Region in Romania;

- physical elimination from the country of the Romanian political, military and intellectual elite, of the wealthy peasant landowners, either in camps of labor and reeducation or by ousting; inversion of the value scale in the society;

- deportation of sixty eight thousand Romanian Germans to USSR;

- the disbanding of private property over production means and forceful collectivization;

- falsifying of Romanian history on Marxist and pro-Russian bases;

- secularization of the Romanian society, infiltration of the churches by the Securitate, collaboration of the Church with the atheist state in the endeavour to peacefully install the new regime;

- methodical introduction of fear as a mass control manner by the state;

- isolation of the Romanian state from the Western European values;

- deepening of the Soviet state dogma about the existence of a fundamental and opposable difference: Romanian-Moldavian; the forceful alignment to this dogma in the occupied territories; cultural separation between the Romanians in the Romanian state and the ones in USSR; demonization of the ethnonym "Romanian" and all its derivatives;

- Sovietization of the occupied Romanian territories, denationalization, Russification and alienation of the native population;

- deportation in 1941 of four hundred thousand Romanian citizens (among which one hundred thousand Jews) from the occupied Romanian territories to Siberian gulags [4, p. 405];

- the massacre of Fîntîna Albă (April 1st 1941), when Soviet border guards opened fire against a peaceful column of 3000 Bucovinean Romanian civilians who intended to cross the new border and leave USSR, killing most part of them;

- atheization of the masses, persecution of religious cults in the Romanian occupied territories; discontinuation of monastic life (in Basarabia a single monastery stayed open, the nun monastery of Japca);

- profanation of churches and monasteries in the occupied territories, the transformation of the buildings thereof for lay uses, for instance into expositional pavilion (Metropolitan Church in Chișinău), museums (of wine - Saint Pantelimon [Pantaleon] - church in Chișinău, of atheism - Saint Teodora of Sihla church from Chișinău, of the region - Holy Emperors church in Bălți etc.), theater (at Rîbnița), stable (Hîrbovăț), depots (Țîpova, Căpriana), hospitals (Suruceni, Țigănești, Saharna, Curchi), orphanages (Frumoasa, Rudi (Rughi)), club (Hîrjauca) and summer camp for children (Condrița);

- the famine instrumented by the Soviet state in 1946 and 1947, especially in Basarabia, bringing about numerous deaths and human dramas, including cannibalism [7] and fleeing over River Prut to the Romanian state; the escape attempts ended either successfully or in the shooting to death of the runaways by the Soviet border guards [2];

- physical elimination in the Romanian occupied territories of the majority of the intellectuals and wealthy peasant landowners; labeling of the surviving families as members of the family of an enemy of the people, with judicial consequences for the persons implied, according to the Soviet laws then valid;

- deportation in 1949 to Siberia of 11,293 families from the Romanian occupied territories;

- relocation during 1949 - 1953 period, from Northern Bucovina to Kherson and Zaporizhia regions of thousands of Romanian families, with the declared goal of work melioration and rural systematization [8];

- deportation in 1951 to Siberia (region of Kurgan) of 723 families from the Romanian occupied territories (2.617 persons, namely 808 men, 967 women and 842 children);

- confiscation of all goods belonging to war refugees or to the persons deported to Siberia;

- settlement in the the Romanian occupied territories of allogeneic and allolingual population, mainly Slavic, mainly in the cities and mainly in leading positions.

Prospects of the "Liberation" Monument in Chișinău

The future of this monument is unknown. It could be replaced soon by "Monumentul Limbii Române" [Romanian Language Monument], a project of sculptor Vlad Basarab [1], [9].Shaped as an open book, the Romanian Language Monument will comprise pages from the writings of Mihai Eminescu, Vasile Voiculescu, Nichita Stănescu, Grigore Vieru, Dumitru Matcovschi, Tudor Arghezi, George Coșbuc, Vasile Alecsandri, Octavian Goga, Alexei Mateevici, Lucian Blaga, Radu Gyr, Ion Barbu, and also from the letter of Neacșu of Cîmpulung (the oldest preserved document fully written in Romanian to be known until the present day).

Monuments and Memorial Stones in Chișinău Dedicated to the Victims of Soviet Occupation

Temporarily, in the square of the Chișinău Railway Station a simple stone was erected in 2011, girdled with barbed wire, bearing a plaque with the following inscription:

†
AICI
VA FI ÎNĂLȚAT
UN MONUMENT
ÎN MEMORIA
VICTIMELOR
REPRESIUNILOR
STALINISTE









meaning
†
HERE
SHALL BE ERECTED
A MONUMENT
IN MEMORY OF
VICTIMS OF
STALINIST
REPRESSION

Deportee Stone in the Square of Chișinău Railway Station

Deportee Stone, detail with inscription

On August 23rd 2014 the Deportation Victims monument was unveiled, on the envisaged placement, work of sculptor Iurie Platon. The day of unveiling was so chosen as to commemorate 75 years since the signing of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact, root cause of Basarabian drama.

Monument for victims of deportation in the square of Chișinău railway station

The monument, entitled "Trenul durerii" [Train of Grief], bears the inscription:

ÎN MEMORIA
VICTIMELOR
DEPORTĂRILOR
REGIMULUI
COMUNIST









meaning
IN MEMORY OF
VICTIMS
OF COMMUNIST
REGIME
DEPORTATION

Another monument will be erected in the Great National Assembly Square,in front of the Government's building. Today on this placement lies a marble stone with the following inscription:

ÎN ACEST LOC
VA FI AMPLASAT MONUMENTUL
ÎN MEMORIA VICTIMELOR
OCUPAȚIEI SOVIETICE
ȘI ALE REGIMULUI
TOTALITAR COMUNIST









meaning
IN THIS PLACE
WILL BE PLACED THE MONUMENT
IN MEMORY OF VICTIMS OF
SOVIET OCCUPATION
AND TOTALITARIAN
COMMUNIST REGIME

Memorial for the victims of Soviet occupation, in the Great National Assembly Square

In the park close to the Academy of Music, Theater and Fine Arts in Chișinău (Alexe Mateevici Street) a marble stone was placed, bearing the following inscription:

TRECĂTORULE
PLEACĂ-ȚI FRUNTEA ÎNTRU
CINSTIREA MEMORIEI BASARABENILOR
MASACRAȚI AICI DE CĂLĂII
BOLȘEVICI ÎN IUNIE 1940 - IULIE 1941
†









meaning
PASSERBY
BOW YOUR HEAD TO
HONOR THE MEMORY OF BASARABIANS
MASSACRED HERE BY BOLSHEVIK
EXECUTIONERS IN JUNE 1940 - JULY 1941
†

On the place of this memorial stone the NKVD building lay, (former Italian Consulate). There numerous victims were executed and burried in mass graves - Russians immigrated from Soviet Russia, Moldavians fled from the left bank of River Nistru to Romania and Basarabian Moldavians [6].

References

1. Basarab V., The Monument Dedicated to the Romanian Language. web site, tridimensional project published on March 28th 2014, February 2015.

2. Cașu I., Dușmanul de clasă - Represiuni politice, violență și rezistență în R(A)SS Moldovenească, 1924-1956 [Class Enemy - Political Repressions, Violence and Resistance in Moldavian (A)SSR, 1924-1956]. Cartier Publishing House, Chișinău, 2014.

3. Colesnic I., Chișinăul și chișinăuienii [Chișinău and Chișinăuers]. Ulysse Publishing House, Chișinău, 2012, (pag. 13, „O paradă de care nu vor să-și amintească biruitorii” [A Parade the Victors Do Not Want to Remember]).

4. Stoenescu A.M., Armata, mareșalul și evreii [The Army, the Marshall and the Jews]. 2nd edition, revised and expanded, RAO Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010.

5. Stoenescu A.M., Istoria loviturilor de stat în România. vol. 3, Cele trei dictaturi [History of Coups in Romania. vol. 3, The Three Dictatorships]. Revised edition. RAO Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010, p. 514, 518.

6. Tașcă M., Iată unde călăii NKVD au masacrat 3.400 de basarabeni în 1940-1941 [Here is where NKVD executioners have massacred 3.400 Basarabians in 1940-1941]. Article published on 07.07.2011, Historia.ro, February 2015.

7. Vakulovski A., În gura foametei. Mărturii ale supraviețuitorilor [In the Mouth of Famine. Testimonies of Survivors]. 2nd edition. Tracus Arte Publishing House, Bucharest, 2013.

8. ***, Youtube (February 2015). Conferința "Fântâna Albă" - Cernăuți 2011, vorbește Dumitru Covalciuc (II) ["Fântâna Albă" Conference - Cernăuți 2011, speaker Dumitru Covalciuc (II)]. Video file uploaded on April 3rd 2011, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBsbnUPH880.

9. ***, (video, foto) Cum va arăta „Monumentul Limbii Române” din scuarul AȘM [(video, photo) How will the "Romanian Language Monument” in the Moldavian Academy of Sciences Square look]. Unimedia - portalul de știri nr. 1 din Moldova [UNIMEDIA - the no. 1 news portal in Moldavia], web site, article published on March 11th 2014, February 2015.


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