||greschl 1765 - Maria Theresa||
22 mm, 9.1 and 7.6 g, copper
outer pearl circle, ornaments, German inscription EIN GRESCHL and year 1765
|outer pearl circle, inside it Transylvanian coat of arms on an adorned shield supported at right by a laurel and at left by a palm wreath, a crown above|
Medieval Transylvanian mintage knows a few main evolutionary periods: the period of the Hungarian kingdom that struck coin inside the Carpathian space (close to the gold mines, to say so), autonomous principality period (under Turkish suzerainity), Habsburg period up to Maria Theresa during which properly called Transylvanian coins kept on being struck (bearing the face of either the emperor or the empress, but also the coat of arms of the principality) and the last one that reminds of Transylvania only through mint ensigns on regular imperial coins.
The life of the autonomous Transylvanian principality under Habsburgs lasted from 1691 to 1867, when Austro-Hungarian dualism brought it to an end. The principality enjoyed a separate statute (endorsed by the Leopoldian Diploma), being direct subject of the emperor. Through the Carlowitz peace (1699) and the one of Passarowitz (1718) the Porte was compelled to acknowledge Austrian domination in Transylvania.
The coin in the pictures above belongs to the third period, being a copper greschl struck by Maria Theresa (1740 - 1780).
Catalog Monede şi bancnote româneşti by George Buzdugan, Octavian Luchian and Constantin Oprescu mentions none less than ten variants of the 1765 greschl, all concerning die differences. The interesting part is that only ONE of the variants has the donjons (towers) disposed four and three, all other nine being three and four. We show on this page TWO different pieces (unlike as die) having the towers on the Transylvanian coat of arms disposed four and three. The second one (on this page) has position 3100 in Monede şi bancnote româneşti; the first it seems to have fallen out of authors' attention for one reason or another.
The differences come clear when throwing a keen eye on the eagle: the first eagle bears a crown, its wings point up and the wings of the later point sideways, no crown.